I was reading through the Gatcomb's Gazette editions that Joel Hooks kindly uploaded, and in Volume 7 No. 3 the opening article titled "Old-Time Banjoists" provides a lot of information that is very relevant to this forum and could shed light on a number of topics discussed here including the beginnings of fingerstyle banjo. Here's a link:
I'm just attached a particularly nice example of one of the contexts in which African Americans played banjo. The engraving is entitled "Prison March" and it refers to an activity in the Schuylkill County prison in Pennsylvania in 1883. But it could just as well describe African American marches through the streets of New York or Boston in the antebellum period.
I know of a couple of quite prominent people in the classic banjo world who are disdainful for "old time" banjo music. That is just two, but I don't get out much: I expect there are others. But on the other hand, lots of players come to classic style there after years of playing bluegrass or old time music.
Paul Ely Smith,
The two "classic" players that I just mentioned are knowledgable of old time banjo technique and can play it. They could describe it accurately, but they don't think highly of it. Along those lines: I don't see how Converse's condescension disqualifies him as an accurate observer of fingering technique. *Especially* for something as simple as how many fingers people used or whether people are picking up or down.
Converse may be the only guy who ever thought that ante bellum folk technique was interesting enough to memorialize in writing.
What Converse describes is: simple fingering in the first position, a range of just a few notes, and two finger up-picking. I recall Pete Seeger saying somewhere that most of the folk musicians that when he encountered while field collecting only knew three or four songs using simple instrumental accompaniment. What Converse describes is plausible... it is hard to imagine that he didn't see what he described.
On the ekonting and up-picking: Ulf Jagfors mentions up-picking and down-picking in his interview with Bill Evans ("Conversations with Banjo Historians" CD). You might have a hard time finding a video of up-picking because the guys who document the instrument are most interested in the roots of down-picking. Greg Adams has visited the area himself: If he wishes to chime in we can just defer to whatever he has to say about it.
Richard and Lee, I thought the same thing about the engraving: finger style. The caption states "From a Sketch by Joseph Becker." If the artist drew the scene from life, it's possible that he accurately captured the hand positions of the two musicians. Unfortunately, I only have the engraving, not the whole newspaper. So I don't have the article describing the engraving. But I may be able to track it down. In any event, what strikes me about this image is that it matches perfectly some of the descriptions of African American banjo playing in the antebellum period, namely, groups of black men marching and singing through the streets of New York, Boston, and Washington, DC.
"FBC is being painted as a hate filled villain" --Joel Hooks
No, I painted him as ignorant. Well, to be accurate, he does that himself. He quite clearly is unaware of what is going on in African-American music communities in the nineteenth century. 90% of African-Americans at this time lived in the rural Southeast. Was FBC traveling through that region studying African-American music? NO. He. was. not. interested. Therefore, he doesn't know what they are doing. This is not hard to figure out, folks. That has nothing whatsoever to do with the Iroquois or his delusions of grandeur over his supposed superiority over all other banjo players who have gone before him regardless of race or class.
All I was originally trying to say a page ago was that any observations he made with regard to what "most" African-American banjo players were or weren't doing are suspect. I was challenged on that point and I explained my reasoning. Move on, nothing to see here...
Well, Dan'l, if the shoe fits...I'm sure FBC's character was unimpeachable, blah, blah, blah. And you can entertain whatever ahistorical fantasies you like about the familiarity Northerners had about the experience of African-Americans in the South (that little theory of yours would be hilarious were this particular brand of ignorance not so tragic for the people in question). But FBC didn't know his tension hoop from a hole in the ground when it came to African-American music in the rural South. The record on this is indisputable. Deal with it.
OK, I'm done explaining every little component of my not-difficult-to-understand argument. You will have to take up your misunderstanding of my discussion of West African performance practice with someone who has not endured your tedious boilerplate arguments for years already.
The premise of "raising the artistry" of a particular cultural/social community's music (regardless of whether that social class and culture is rich or poor, or educated in Western institutions or not) starts with the assumption that it had a low level of artistry to begin with. That's both arrogant and ignorant, whether it happened yesterday or 200 years ago. A more accurate view is that they observed a music style, technique, and instrument that they judged to be of interest to them but 'lowly' and inferior as compared to their own culture's music and standards, and decided to adopted and adapt it to their own familiar cultural stylings, repertoire, and purposes.
My problem is in the whole concept of viewing the evolving/mixing/borrowing/adapting styles and techniques and repertoire as becoming more 'advanced' or 'superior'. It certainly changed over time, reflecting each social group's dominance, time, place, and popular tastes in turn. Whether banjo playing became more 'advanced, artistic, or superior' as time went on after the 1870s is purely a matter of personal opinion and taste.
Yes, that quality of Shona mbira music is also common throughout West Africa, and I think you are astute to see the connection with the banjo's (and the ekonting's, and the ngoni's...) thumb string (it applies to other aspects of banjo texture as well). I have used the term "hocketing" (click on the word for the standard definition) to describe this texture because there really isn't a term in common-practice European music to describe it. Texturally and rhythmically, it is far more complex than the usual broken/arpeggiated chords of European music ("Alberti" bass, etc.), and it is another clear indicator of the influence of West African tradition on American music.